Russia is located in the north-eastern part of the largest continent of the globe – Eurasia and occupies about a third of its territory (31.5%). The extreme northern and the eastern point of the mainland are both extreme points of Russia. While in the two parts of the world – Europe and Asia – Russia occupies the eastern part of Europe and northern Asia expanses. By the size of the territory of our country ranks first in the world. Russia Area 17,100,000 km2. This is greater than the area of all European countries combined. on territory.
Russia probably not comparable with individual states, on the whole continent. Area Russia over Australia and the Antarctic area and only slightly inferior to South America (18.2 million km2). Russia 1.6-1.8 times greater than the area the largest states of the world – Canada, the US and China, and in 29 times – the largest state in Europe – Ukraine.
The total length of the borders of Russia is 60 932 km. Of them are 38 807 km (about 2/3) of land to share maritime borders – 22 125 km (including 7616 km – on the rivers and lakes). The northern and eastern borders of the sea * and the western and south – mainly land. The great length of the state borders of Russia is determined by the size of its territory and winding contours of coastlines of the Arctic, Pacific and Atlantic oceans that wash its shores.
State located on two continents – Europe and Asia. In the south and south-eastern border with China, south-east – with North Korea, in the south – with Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, on the south-west – with Ukraine in the west – with Finland, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Norway. In addition, Kaliningrad region, Russian enclave on the Baltic Sea, is bordered by Poland and Lithuania. Russia also belong to the island of Novaya Zemlya, Severnaya Zemlya, Vaigach, Franz Josef Land archipelago New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean; Kuril Islands (part of the Kuril Islands – Iturup, Kunashir, Shikotan – contested by Japan) and Sakhalin Island in the Pacific Ocean. In the east, bordering Russia Japan, Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea and the Bering Strait in the north – the Barents, Kara, In Russia about 120 thousand. Rivers (over 10 km). The largest rivers Amur, Anadyr, Volga, Don, Yenisey, Indigirka, Irtysh and Kolyma, Kuban, Lena, Moscow, Neva, Ob Oka, Penzhina, Pechora, North. Dvina. In Russia, about 2 million. Fresh and salty lakes. The largest – the Caspian, Baikal, Ladoga, Onega. The highest point of Russia – Elbrus (5642 m).
Features of Russian climate determined by a number of geographical factors, including geographic location, size and length of the territory from west to east and from north to south, a wide variety of terrain. The climate on the whole territory of Russia is characterized by a clear division of the year in the cold and warm seasons. Most of the country lies in the temperate zone, the islands of the Arctic Ocean and the northern continental regions – the Arctic and subarctic zones; Black Sea coast is situated in the subtropical zone. Within each zone there are significant climate change in the direction from west to east (climatic region) and from north to south (the zonal types of climate). For example, there are four subtypes of climate in the temperate zone: temperate continental:
Islands of the Arctic ocean, Siberia in coastal areas
Area along the Arctic circle
Central European part, West Siberian plain, far East
Black sea coast, Caucasus
Russian languages belong to 14 linguistic families – Indo-European, Altai, Urals, Yukagirs-Chuvan, Kartvelian, Abkhaz-Adyghe, the Nakh-Dagestani, Sino-Tibetan, Semitic, Eskimo-Aleut, Chukchi-Kamchatka, the Yenisei, Austroasiatic, Ainu; Nivkh language is isolated. The official (state) language on the entire territory of the Russian Federation – Russian. The peoples of the Russian Federation shall be guaranteed the right to preserve their native language.
Among the most numerous religious faiths is the Orthodox, inhabitants of multinational Russia also profess Islam, Catholicism, Judaism, Buddhism.
146.3 million. Pers. (1999): men – 68.2 million people. Women – 78.1 million people. Life expectancy: men – '61; female – 73 years.
Currency – Ruble (1 RUB = 100 kopecks). Most banks are open from 9.00 to 17.00 from Monday to Friday, many are open on Saturday. Major banks are open from 9.00 to 20.00, Saturday – from 10.00 to 18.00. It is widely accepted cards Visa, MasterCard, rarely – Visa Electron and Cirrus / Maestro, very rarely – Diners Club. You can use traveler's checks, but cash can only be in banks.
Current exchange rate 1$ = apr 65RUB, 1EU = 75RUB.
Duty-free import of things, if the imported goods are not intended for production or commercial activity, or the amount of imported goods does not exceed the established norms. Individuals not younger than 17 years without customs duties can be brought to 2 liters of alcoholic beverages, up to 50 cigars, cigarillos 100, 200 cigarettes or 0.25 kg of tobacco. Value of imported goods shall not exceed $ 2 million.
Allowed to import and export without payment of customs duties goods necessary for personal use – clothes, toiletries, jewelery, photo and video equipment. In the case of import of goods by individuals, the total cost and the total weight of which exceeds the size established by the legislation, but the cost of not more than 650 thous. Rubles and a maximum weight of 200 kg, apply a single rate of customs duties and taxes in the amount of 30% of the customs value of goods, but not less than 4 euro per 1 kg.
If the imported or exported goods in an amount slightly higher than the usual requirements, you must provide proof that it is not intended for commercial purposes. When crossing the border by car, you can take duty-free up to 20 liters. fuel, excluding fuel in the tank. Medicines can take no more than one package of each item, fish and crustaceans – 5 kg gross human, calf Sturgeon (black) is not more than 280 g per person, non-ferrous metal products (household) weighing less than 20 kg, jewelry – not more than five subjects weighing up to 130 g (for articles of gold and platinum) or 120 g (for silverware) articles of precious or semi-precious stones – a maximum of five items per person, commemorative coins of precious metals, which are in circulation in the Russian Federation, in an amount of not more than ten pieces per person and per trip, without any obligation to bring them back. Export from the Russian commemorative coins made of precious metals to individuals are allowed only by special permission of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. Import commemorative coin made of precious and non-precious metals can be without limitations.
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The transport system is characterized by the Russian developed transportation network including a 87 th. Kilometers of railways, more than 745 thousand. Kilometers of roads paved, over 600 thousand. Km air lines 70 thousand. Km main oil and product, and more than 140 thousand . km of trunk pipelines, 115 thous. km of river navigable waterways and many sea routes.
The main ports on the Black Sea – Novorossiysk, Taganrog and Tuapse; Baltic – Kaliningrad, Baltic, St. Petersburg, Vyborg, in the Barents – Murmansk; on white – Arkhangelsk; in Japanese – Vanino, Vladivostok, Nakhodka, Vostochny Port. It employs over 3.2 million people, representing 4.6% of the working population. Huge space and harsh climate determined the utmost importance for all-weather Rosii land transport modes – rail and pipeline. They drop the bulk of freight transportation.
Water transport plays in Russia is much less of a role because of the short navigation period. The role of road transport in the total cargo turnover due to the extremely small average distance of transportation (within cities and suburbs, in quarries opencast mining of minerals, on logging roads in logging areas, and so on. D.) Is also low, despite the fact that they are carried more than half the cargo. An important feature of the Russian transport system is its close relationship with industry. The role of road transport in the total cargo turnover due to the extremely small average distance of transportation (within cities and suburbs, in quarries opencast mining of minerals, on logging roads in logging areas, and so on. D.) Is also low, despite the fact that they are carried more than half the cargo.
An important feature of the Russian transport system is its close relationship with industry. The role of road transport in the total cargo turnover due to the extremely small average distance of transportation (within cities and suburbs, in quarries opencast mining of minerals, on logging roads in logging areas, and so on. D.) Is also low, despite the fact that they are carried more than half the cargo. An important feature of the Russian transport system is its close relationship with industry.
In the inner city passenger transportation in Russia in the lead bus. In the largest cities also established the tram and trolleybus. The operational length of tram and trolleybus lines, 7.6 thousand. Km. The most extensive tram network in the world has the St. Petersburg (more than half are in poor condition). In the six largest cities – Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Samara, Yekaterinburg and Novosibirsk. The choir conductor's entertainers from the reserve – there are underground. The total operational length subway tracks is nearly 390 km.
Air transportation is the most expensive, which limits its application cargo (perishables), it has a greater value for the passenger. In the Far North regions play an important role helicopters carrying cargo and passengers to the production facilities, providing emergency medical assistance, etc. The main centers of air travel are Moscow, St. Petersburg, Resorts of the North Caucasus, Ekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok...
Tipping in Russia are optional, except for restaurants, where they make up 10 to 15% of the total order. Sometimes the tip is already included in the bill.
Russian table is well known abroad mainly for its delicacies: smoked back sturgeon (sturgeon), salmon mayonnaise, salted salmon (salmon), red, black and pink (whitefish) caviar, pickled and salted mushrooms (saffron milk caps and white), but not only a beautiful still life with crystal-clear vodka in Moscow, but also in harmony with her thin in taste terms. The basis of the old Russian cuisine were hlebennye, flour and grain dishes. Already in the IX. there is the sour rye bread on a black-leavened dough ferment that becomes a national Russian bread and love to which the vast majority of the people has a decisive impact on the position of the Russian church hierarchy in the debate on the Eucharist in the Ecumenical Councils in the middle of the XI century. (Where the Russian bishops rejected the unleavened bread!
Particular progress has been pies, t. E. Products in the dough shell with the various fillings of fish, meat, poultry and game, mushrooms, cheese, vegetables, berries, fruits, of different grains in combination with fish, meat and mushrooms. In itself, the grain was the basis for the creation of dishes from it – cereals. Kashi – polbyanaya, buckwheat, rye, so-called "green" (from a young unripe rye), barley (barley) -delalis in three types, depending on the ratio of grain and water: cool, gruel and gruel (semi). They were prepared with the addition of the same variety of products which are used in the filling for pies. In the X-XIV centuries. cereals purchased value of the mass ritual meals, which begins and ends with any major event, marked by the participation of large masses of people.
In the medieval period also had the majority of Russian national drinks: honey representation (about 880-890 years.), Is prepared by a method similar to the production of wines, and give the product close to cognac (extract from 5 to 35 years); b e r e s on in TABLE drunk (921) – a product of fermented birch sap; honey hop – with the addition of honey, hops, in addition to berry juices (920-930 gg.); honey varenyy- product, similar in technology for beer (996); kvass, siderite (XI c.), beer (around 1284). In the 40-70-ies of the XV century. (Not earlier than 1448 and no later than 1474 years.) Russian vodka appears in Russia. Sooner as expressed national technological differences between its manufacturing impact on the higher quality of Russian vodka in comparison with the arisen later gorilka – Polish and Cherkasy (Ukrainian) vodka.
Finally, in the medieval period of Russian cuisine is detected and a tendency to use liquid hot dishes, received the general name of "hlobova". The most widespread are such kinds hlobova as soup, based on renewable raw materials, as well as different types of flour soup. As for milk and meat, these products until the XVII century. were used relatively infrequently, and their treatment was simple. Meat (usually beef and much less often – pork and lamb) cooked in soup or mush until the XVI century. barely toasted. On the use of many types of meat it had imposed a strict ban – especially on hare and veal. It remains a historical fact that in 1606 the boyars could incite the False Dmitry I crowd, prompting her to break into the Kremlin only the news that the king is not true, because eating veal. It was the most convincing argument.
Milk drinking raw, stewed or soured; obtained from sour milk curd and sour cream, and cream and production of oil remained almost unknown until the XVI century. Honey and berries in ancient kitchen was not only the sweets themselves, but also the basis on which the created syrups and jams. And when mixed with the flour and butter, flour and eggs, honey and berries were the basis of the Russian national sweet product – gingerbread. Therefore, cookies are until the XIX century. Only honey or honey-berry, often honey-raspberry or strawberry honey. In XIV-XV centuries. There are also other Russian national sweet product – levishniki, prepared from carefully pureed berries cranberries, blueberries, cherries or strawberries, dried thin layer of the sun. By the Russian national delicacy until the XX century. treated and nuts.
In 70-80 years we have also dramatically increased the consumption of egg dishes, the use of poultry (particularly chickens, chickens, turkeys, ducks) and sausages as a semi-finished second hot dishes. At the same time in the home during the 60-80s were simplified structure and technology of food, mainly because of the reluctance of the modern citizen for a long time to bother with cooking. So, the bird boiled or fried whole (less frequently), but almost is not stuffed with apples, potatoes, onions, rice, raisins, as it was before, when it is less likely to appear on the table and becomes a small event in the family.